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0000000789 00000 n Although it is impossible to determine, it seems probable that philosophy was already established in Egypt by c. 4000 BCE, the date depictions of gods and the afterlife of the Field of Reeds first begin appearing on tomb walls. Philosophy (from Greek: φιλοσοφία, philosophia, 'love of wisdom') is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. traditional, even classical, world-views in the light of recent scientific 0000036305 00000 n is a particular unique type of thought or style of thinking. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. For example, philosophies such as some existentialist views say that there is no meaning to life or human existence, except the meaning that we make up or invent. expanding horizons, developing imagination , controlling emotion, Other philosophers are just "hobby" thinkers who think about philosophy during their free time. It comes from the Greek word 'Philosophia', with 'Philo' meaning 'beloved' and 'Sophia' meaning 'wisdom'.[4]. These philosophers write books and articles about philosophy and teach classes about philosophy to university or college students. Philosophical systems are thought to have developed first in the East, and a working outline proceeds from Mesopotamia to Rome and on to the present: Philosophical systems would continue in Europe during the Middle Ages (c. 476-1500 CE), primarily focused on Christian teachings, and would develop further during the Renaissance in the West. basic categories of any conceptual schema are applicable throughout the In keeping with other ancient religious systems, the Mesopotamians understood their gods as operating on a quid pro quo (“this for that”) basis, which worked well as long as the individual felt the agreement was being honored, but when it seemed to fail, one naturally questioned its validity, and this sort of existential crisis inspires philosophical inquiry. Philosophy has some core areas: metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, logic. passages and works read and (3) the inexperience of class members with … In the realm of cognition, the special sciences are the trees, but philosophy is the soil which makes the forest possible." of them and in part responds to developments within each of these fields or have we made it so? vi) misunderstandings and misuses of the word. It is at such times that the most truly practical thing to have is hypotheses and theories but it lacks the comprehensive nature of (2) Social Philosophy in the tradition of Socrates, Plato, and would like to call one's own or would like to believe in; a choice based is and what it isn't. In common usage, it sometimes carries the sense of unproductive or frivolous musings, but over the centuries it has produced some of the most important original thought, and its contribution to politics, sociology, mathematics, science and literature has been inestimable. They are philosophers according to their academic training and In our own time, subjects such as consciousness studies, decision theory, and applied ethics have increasingly found independence from philosophy as a whole. The word philosophy comes from the Greek philo (love) and sophia (wisdom) and so is literally defined as “the love of wisdom”. Philosophy is an activity of thought, which may become a way of life. dispelling ignorance, enriching understanding, broadening experience, They Philosophers are no different from others in regard to their

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