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This occurs most often due to the presence of coronary artery disease, which limits increases in coronary perfusion in cases of severe anemia, significant arrhythmias and other stressors. Office activities may be grouped under two classes, namely, i)   Activities performed by clerical personnel (clerks, secretaries, typist, etc.,) and, ii) Activities performed by the executives (managers, engineers or other professionals like economist, researches etc.). Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet JP, et al. (Example: Management Reporting Systems, Sales management System, Inventory control System) Decision Support System. The elements of the decision support system include a. Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, et al. Planning Information − These are the information needed for establishing standard norms and specifications in an organization. However, the increased sensitivity of cTn assays have unmasked the fact that there are a large number of circumstances in which myocardial injury can exist as an entity in itself in the absence of acute ischemic heart disease.1-4 The essence of this concept includes the following (Figure 1): It should be appreciated that those with a diagnosis of either acute or chronic myocardial injury have an adverse prognosis, both short and long term, so that any inferences that such elevations are not important are inappropriate.7 It should also be appreciated that those with underlying obstructive coronary artery disease are in general at greater risk.8, Figure 1: Model for Clarifying Myocardial Injury and MI, If a diagnosis of MI is appropriate, the fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction retains the five types of MI as described in the third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction, though with modifications.6, Type 1 MI is due to acute coronary atherothrombotic myocardial injury with either plaque rupture or erosion and, often, associated thrombosis. Clinical Topics: Arrhythmias and Clinical EP, Cardiac Surgery, Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathies, Invasive Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention, Noninvasive Imaging, Atherosclerotic Disease (CAD/PAD), EP Basic Science, Aortic Surgery, Cardiac Surgery and Arrhythmias, Cardiac Surgery and Heart Failure, Acute Heart Failure, Heart Failure and Cardiac Biomarkers, Interventions and Coronary Artery Disease, Interventions and Imaging, Angiography, Nuclear Imaging, Keywords: Coronary Artery Disease, Myocardial Infarction, Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy, Bundle-Branch Block, Prognosis, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Coronary Artery Bypass, Myocardial Ischemia, Myocardium, Heart Failure, Renal Insufficiency, Chronic, Biological Markers, Coronary Angiography, Troponin, Anemia, Electrocardiography, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Stents. Strategic Information − Strategic information is concerned with long term policy decisions that defines the objectives of a business and checks how well these objectives are met. DSS processes information to support the decision making process of a manager. High-Sensitivity Troponin T and Mortality After Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. DSS tends to be used in planning, analyzing alternatives, and trial and error search for solution. MIS depends on function. Advertisements. Executive Support System (ESS) is an extension of the management information system, which is a special kind of DSS; An ESS is specially tailored for the use of chief executive of an organization to support his decision-making. These systems are based on artificial intelligence, and are advanced information systems. Most of these individuals do not have STEMI but more often have NSTEMI at presentation. These assays have substantially changed the way in which the evaluation of myocardial infarction (MI) proceeds, although the clinical criteria for MI have not been changed. It represents the automation of the fundamental, routine processing used to support business operations. All Rights Reserved. The criteria for a procedural MI have, to some extent, remained unchanged from the third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction.6 However, it is emphasized that an isolated procedural elevation of cTn values is indicative of cardiac procedural myocardial injury that does not alone meet the criteria for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related type 4a MI or for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related type 5 MI. For example, daily schedules in a manufacturing plant that refers to the detailed assignment of jobs to machines or machines to operators. What is MIS Planning? Zeitouni M, Silvain J, Guedeney P, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. A business expert system is a knowledge based information system that uses its knowledge about a specific, complex application area to act as an expert. Based on Anthony's classification of Management, information used in business for decision-making is generally categorized into three types −. Next Page . TPS uses data and produces data as shown in the following diagram. Such patients are benefited by management according to recent guidelines. Type 1 MI is due to acute coronary atherothrombotic myocardial injury with either plaque rupture or erosion and, often, associated thrombosis. Office automation refers to the application of computes and communication technology to office functions. Karl Weick's Organizational Information Theory emphasizes that an organization reduces its equivocality or uncertainty by collecting, managing and using these information prudently. Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS, et al. In the first category, the following is a list of activities. 9-11 The following are types of information systems used to create reports, extract data, and assist in the decision making processes of middle and operational level managers. Recently, the fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction was released, with simultaneous online publications in The Journal of the American College of Cardiology,1 Circulation,2 European Heart Journal,3 and Global Heart,4 in recognition of the joint sponsorship from the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, the European College of Cardiology, and the World Heart Federation. Examples of users at this level of management include cashiers at … Database Information − Database information construes large quantities of information that has multiple usage and application. Furthermore, clarification has been made concerning the measurement of ST-segment change and the use of left and right bundle branch block as criteria for angiography when possible STEMI is suspected. Organizational Information − Organizational information deals with an organization's environment, culture in the light of its objectives. DSS tends to be used in planning, analyzing alternatives, and trial and error search for solution. The literature has questioned the clinical importance of post-PCI elevations when the baseline cTn values are elevated.12 However, recent data regarding PCI suggest that in case of normal baseline, the fivefold increase of post-procedural high sensitivity cTn values is prognostically important.13,14 For the sake of completeness, it should be added that the presence of procedure-related stent thrombosis (i.e., type 4b MI) and post-procedural restenosis (i.e., type 4c MI) are diagnosed applying the same criteria utilized for type 1 MI.

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