People who are hypersensitive to these alkaloids also may develop the syndrome, which is characterized by severe headache, abdominal pain, convulsions, visual disturbances and blindness, auditory disturbances such as ringing in the ears, paralysis, and collapse.10, Therapeutic doses of quinine have resulted in acute hemolytic anemia12 a limitation for its use in patients who are glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient.3 Quinine also has been associated with other serious hematologic disorders such as agranulocytosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation44, 45 hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)16, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49 neutropenia (leukopenia)50 pancytopenia with coagulopathy51, 52 and thrombocytopenia (the most common hematologic adverse effect).50, 53, 54, 55 Patients may present with one or several concomitant hematologic adverse events. Quinine will not treat severe forms of malaria, and it should not be taken to prevent malaria. For sake of comparison, the amount of quinine found in half a liter of tonic water (assuming it contains 83 ppm quinine) equates to about 41.5 milligrams — but malaria treatments usually contain about 540 milligrams or more and are taken three times a day. The small amounts of quinine found in tonic water are not enough to help treat diseases or symptoms like leg cramps. One 2020 study that was ended early found that chloroquine was not very effective and also led some patients to develop irregular heart rates that could potentially lead to fatal heart arrhythmia. The information in our articles is NOT intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. Believe it or not, one of the oldest cures for malaria, a compound called quinine, is now found in a popular “mixer” used to make cocktails: tonic water. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert and able to see clearly. Malaria is common in areas such as Africa, South America, and Southern Asia. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. Quinine has been used for the treatment of malaria and associated febrile states, leg cramps caused by vascular spasm, internal hemorrhoids, varicose veins, and pleural cavities after thoracoplasty. While quinine itself does have the ability to kill certain parasites that can trigger illnesses, tonic water is a sugary drink that’s best to avoid in more than small amounts. It’s a beverage that originated in the 1800s that is made with the bitter compound quinine, plus sugar and sparkling water. ), Chia Seeds Benefits: The Omega-3, Protein-Packed Superfood, 9 Proven Black Seed Oil Benefits that Boost Your Health, Top 15 Potassium-Rich Foods to Start Eating Today, Detox Your Liver: Try My 6-Step Liver Cleanse, How to Cook Turkey Breast (Plus Benefits, Nutrition & Side Effects), Fenugreek Seeds for Digestion, Metabolic Syndrome & More, Palmitic Acid Benefits vs. Risks: What You Need to Know. Some antacids can make it harder for your body to absorb quinine. Serum levels of amantadine, carbamazepine, digoxin, phenobarbital, and warfarin may be elevated by quinine.3, 6, 8, 9 Quinine may enhance the effects of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants and succinylcholine. Because it’s high in added sugar but doesn’t provide many other benefits, no, it’s not the best choice. It is also used as a solvent for resins and terpenes. Typical cinchona bark contains about 16% of quinoline alkaloids consisting mainly of quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, and cinchonidine. It is also the same compound used to lend strong, bitter flavors to other products, such as those intended to taste like “bitter lemon.”. These reactions also may occur with the use of topical preparations containing cinchona extracts or quinine.11, Systemic hypersensitivity reactions can present as HUS, with acute renal failure and simulating sepsis.16, 49. Do not use quinine to treat any condition that has not been checked by your doctor. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. If you are more than 4 hours late for your dose, skip the missed dose and take the medicine at your next scheduled dose time. 32, 33 However, a quick search of the Internet found a multitude of quinine preparations available and advertised for leg cramps.34, Various crossover, randomized trials, and 2 meta-analyses have confirmed that quinine is effective in the prevention of nocturnal leg cramps.31, 35, 36, 37, A Report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology regarding the management of muscles cramps (2010) states that the use of quinine derivatives for treatment of muscle cramps is likely effective based on controlled studies; however, it should be avoided for routine treatment of cramps. Note that the numbers in parentheses (1, 2, etc.) Some people have used quinine to treat leg cramps, but this is not an FDA-approved use. It was originally developed centuries ago as a medicine to fight malaria. tuberculosis medication--rifabutin, rifampin, rifapentine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this product. While drinking normal amounts of tonic water isn’t likely to cause side effects, some people may experience adverse reactions if they have too much or are very sensitive to quinine, such as: When used as a drug, why is quinine now banned? This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Quinoline is used principally for the manufacture of nicotinic acid, which prevents pellagra in humans, and other chemicals.
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