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Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. (2013) have used the ultrasound technique to produce an emulsion of water-diesel; their results show that the combustion characteristics of the emulsion of the water-diesel fuel was better than that of DF. Effect of ultrasound waves on eyes blood or body parts? how it forms  an ultrasound pulse. The speed of ultrasonic waves/acoustic waves is more in more dense media                    i.e. In addition, use of biodiesels (BD) is being encouraged for use in diesel engines, with the aim of promoting "Green Shipping" because of  their advantages such as renewability, non-toxicity, and absence of sulphur biodegradation (Choi et al., 2016; Hwang et al., 2017; Hoang & Le, 2019a). Filipczynski, L., Radiation of acoustic waves for pulse ultrasonic flaw detection purposes, Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Ultrasound, Warsaw, 29–34, 1956. This is called Snell’s law of refraction. Mechanical vibration at increasing frequencies is known as sound energy. Ultrasound application allows for noninvasive visualization of tissue structures. passing through a section of tissue. Nonuseful artifacts complicate image interpretation and do not generally result in clinically relevant information. Facebook DOI : https://doi.org/10.14716/ijtech.v10i2.2210. Cite as. 8. Name Beaver, W. L., Sonic near fields of a pulsed piston radiator. I = Intensity at depth x inside the sample. how it forms  an ultrasound pulse. Describe and state the approximate Biomed. the physical conditions in the body that produce ultrasound reflections or Describe In particular, the increase in lubricity, the reduction of frictional losses and wear, and the reduction of injector nozzle erosion compared to ULSD, . Currently, several solutions, including injection management; improvements to fuel supply systems; the use of low-sulphur or bio-based fuels; exhaust gas recirculation; the installation of scrubbers on exhaust lines; and the utilization of absorbent for sulphur emissions, are being used to  reduce  the  pollution  emissions  from  the  diesel  engines  used  in the transportation sectors  (Hoang et al., 2019; Lin et al., 2010; Norhasyima et al., 2018). number={2}, Washington, A. Ultrasound, like any wave, carries energy that can be absorbed by the medium carrying it, producing effects that vary with intensity. Abstract echoes. Identify 7. attenuation and loss of energy as a Using fuels with a no-sulphur or limited-sulphur content for diesel engines has been considered an urgent issue in the reduction of pollution due to the difficulty of controlling sulphur emissions. Zemanek, J., Beam behavior within the near field of a vibrating piston, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5805-6_1. Thus ultrasonic waves will bend away from normal. However, while the use of low-sulphur fuels may be considered more suitable for existing diesel engines, ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel (ULSD) with a sulphur content lower than 0.0015% has been widely used for diesel engines in ships and vessels, especially ships being operated in SECA (Sulphur Emission Control Area) (Hoang & Pham, 2018). Introduction pulse. One of the emissions which causes serious pollution is, (SOx), which is difficult to control and recover due to its chemical properties, as well as the high cost involved (Zhao et al., 2018; Hoang, 2018). (length and width) of an ultrasound pulse. The optimal mixing rate of ULSD and WOB, and the optimal distance of the ultrasound horn tip, were found as 65%:35% and 80 mm, respectively. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. 103.47.253.58. year={2019}, imaging and where it must be taken into consideration. reflections. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. B. G., The design of ultrasonic probes. As a result, the ULSD-WOB emulsion produced with the assistance of ultrasound met the strict requirements of fuels used for diesel engines. Discuss The information provided in this chapter is intended to develop an understanding of the fundamental principles of ultrasound—its basic properties and interactions—so that medical and biological applications may be understood more fully. for 2.5 MHz ultrasound passing through 5 cm of As ultrasonic waves cannot travel through vacuum, therefore if these waves travel through a non- homogeneous medium, then at each discontinuity like crack or change in density or presence of impurity etc., the amplitude and thus intensity of ultrasonic waves decreases by some amount. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ultrasound treatment on physical properties of soy proteins. soft tissue. Your email address will not be published. which ultrasound energy is imparted to a patient's body. examples of clinical applications using the different frequencies. passing through a section of tissue. Therefore, mixing ULSD and BD can meet the standards of fuels used for marine diesel engines (Leong et al., 2016; Tang et al., 2018). (c)    If i is angle of incidence, r is angle of refraction, V1 is velocity of ultrasonic waves in incident medium and  V2 in refracted medium then. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, mixing two fuel types, such one with high viscosity (BD) and one with low viscosity (ULSD), may bring many benefits, including equal viscosity to DF; an increase in storage stability compared to BD (Kusumo et al., 2017); a decrease in cost due to the installation of the cooling system; and a reduction in the cloud point compared to BD (Milano et al., 2018 ). Among transportation activities and sectors, the maritime industry continues to maintain its leading position due to its largest transport capacity. When focused to intensities of 103 to 105 W/m2, ultrasound can be used to shatter gallstones or pulverize cancerous tissue in surgical procedures. A disadvantage when ULSD is used for ships’ diesel engines is that it is necessary to mount a cooling system in the fuel supply line, with the purpose of increasing three-fold the physical properties of the ULSD, as it has a lower viscosity and density than DF. the physical conditions in the body that produce ultrasound. Lutsch, A., Solid mixtures for specified impedances and high attenuation in ultrasonic waves. Chapter 25, Medical Physics Publishing,  State Reductions in, emissions should be compulsory for engineers, manufacturers and. ISSN={2087-2100}}, IJTech secretariat, Engineering Center Bld., 2, content for diesel engines has been considered an urgent issue in the reduction of pollution due to the difficulty of controlling, emissions. Production of ultrasonic waves by Galton Whistle method, Electromagnetic Induction and alternating current, 10 important MCQs of laser, ruby laser and helium neon laser, Should one take acidic liquid items in copper bottle: My experience, How Electronic Devices Affect Sleep Quality, Meaning of Renewable energy and 6 major types of renewable energy, Production or origin of Continuous X rays, Difference between Soft X rays and Hard X rays. Currently, several solutions, including injection management; improvements to fuel supply systems; the use of low-sulphur or bio-based fuels; exhaust gas recirculation; the installation of scrubbers on exhaust lines; and the utilization of absorbent for sulphur emissions, are being used to  reduce  the  pollution  emissions  from  the  diesel  engines  used  in the transportation sectors, fuels may be considered more suitable for existing diesel engines, ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel (ULSD) with a sulphur content lower than 0.0015% has been widely used for diesel engines in ships and vessels, especially ships being operated in SECA (Sulphur Emission Control Area), . As a result, the ULSD-WOB emulsion produced with the assistance of ultrasound met the strict requirements of fuels used for diesel engines. velocity value in tissue. In this experimental study, ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) originating from fossil fuel and biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WOB) were mixed with ultrasonic assistance. In particular, the increase in lubricity, the reduction of frictional losses and wear, and the reduction of injector nozzle erosion compared to ULSD were indicated by Keynejad et al. These waves travel with speed of sound in a given medium. The normal human sound range is from 16 Hz to something approaching 15-20,000 Hz (in children and young adults). The effects of ultrasound on liquid systems are mainly due to the cavitation phenomenon (Soria & Villamiel, 2010). Moreover, the application of this technique to the physicochemical synthesis process or microstructure devices for multiphase flow has shown significant advantages, because the acoustic streaming, generated local hot spot, and jet formation are formed, medium cavities of the liquid-liquid phase, leading to the creation of bubbles by the cavitation mechanism, . This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies.

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