Human gammaaminobutyric acid-type A receptor 5 subunit gene (GABRA5): characterization and structural organization of the 5' flanking region. Contributions of an avian basal ganglia-forebrain circuit to real-time modulation of song. (1999). It sometimes took birds a few days to begin consistently actuating song playbacks. All birds that were studied in these experiments were offspring of breeding pairs from our large and genetically heterogeneous colony. Castration and antisteroid treatment impair vocal learning in male zebra finches. Reducing hypothalamic AGRP by RNA interference increases metabolic rate and decreases body weight without influencing food intake. "We compared learning for birds that were home-reared and tutored by their genetic fathers, to learning for birds that were cross-fostered and tutored by genetically unrelated adults.". 1a).In the first step of quaternary structure assembly, mucins dimerize by covalent association of their carboxy-terminal regions … Please see response to Essential revisions 3. 2) There were concerns about the statistical methods. Figure 1A). It seems reasonable to conclude that tutoring birds with songs that are faster in tempo than their predisposed (genetically determined) tempo, should have a negative effect on song learning. These results also inform an understanding of how genetic factors shape the cultural transmission of song within a population of birds. Trends Cogn. The results showed that juveniles learned most successfully when the training song had a similar tempo to their father’s song. Tutoring juveniles with songs that are either of a faster or slower tempo than the father's song causes a decrease in overall copying performance when measured as a degree of acoustic similarity of individual syllables. (2006). Animal experimentation: All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#AN170723-02) of the University of California, San Francisco. short ‘introductory’ syllables, noisy syllables, syllables with harmonic structure and constant or modulated frequency, etc.). However, this proposition has resisted clear demonstration in human studies, where it is difficult to control experience and quantify outcomes. (2000). At ~45 days post-hatch, juveniles were transferred to sound chambers where they were computer-tutored with identical songs, yielding a cohort of 20 birds from 13 different breeding nests, all with the same tutor song instruction. Because I am enthusiastic about the research direction described in the manuscript, I would be happy to be corrected if the authors believe that I am in error. (2009). (2007). (2009). GABA receptor ρ subunit expression in the developing rat brain. The flow is logical and the findings have potentially profound implications on motor skill learning more generally by suggesting that tailored instruction can overcome potential genetic biases. Systemic RNA interference for the study of learning and memory in an insect. All three tests remain significant at p < 0.02 after switching to two-tailed tests and correcting for multiple comparisons using a Holm-Bonferroni correction. Recording microphones were placed in a fixed position at the top of the cage housing the bird. The gamma2 subunit of GABAA receptors is a substrate for palmitoylation by GODZ. More broadly, our findings highlight the critical role that gene-experience interactions can play in determining complex phenotypes. (2009). Nevertheless, there were concerns about the claims for genetic influence that are detailed in the comments of reviewer #3. We also now note the important point that any relatedness between cross-fostered birds and tutors in these experiments would be expected to attenuate the effects that we report (rather than artifactually magnify them). Blood Cells Mol. However, there is not universal agreement about what is the best practice, and we have therefore adopted the reviewer’s suggestion that we use more conservative two-tailed tests for the data in Figure 4B. (1995). (2004). In. (2008). The 8.5 syl/s tutor song stimulus arose naturally out of this process, as 8.5 syl/s is close to the median song tempo present in our colony. Nevertheless, a better understanding of such interactions between genetics and experience will likely be required to fully elucidate the mechanisms driving individual-to-individual variation in complex learned behaviors. Given that the one-tailed test gave p<0.02, and that multiple comparisons were not accounted for, the correct p-value should be 0.08. Memory-specific temporal profiles of gene expression in the hippocampus. (2000). Bengalese finches Lonchura Striata Domestica depend upon auditory feedback for the maintenance of adult song. Two fathers’ songs (top: i and ii) had distinct syllable structure that was well learned by their offspring (bottom: i and ii). This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited. (2004). These analyses are presented in the main text (Results, last paragraph) and Figure 4—figure supplement 3B. A similar effect was documented by Podos and Nowicki, who showed a calibration effect and 'broken syntax' (deviation from tutor song) when tutor song rhythm was too fast. Enhanced learning and memory and altered GABAergic synaptic transmission in mice lacking the α5. Second, this approach allows statistical control over measured parameters (e.g. The distribution of thirteen GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs in the rat brain. Birdsong: biological themes and variations. To eliminate the confound of potential variability in individual interactions with the tutor, we next used a computer tutoring paradigm (Mets and Brainard, 2018a; Tchernichovski et al., 1999) to hold both the acoustic structure of the tutor song and the number of song exposures constant across all individuals (Figure 3A). (1979). All statistical testing in this study was carried out in consultation with the biostatistics consultancy of the UCSF Clinical and Translational Science Institute. This fascinating manuscript addresses the interaction of genetic predisposition and experience in determining adult behavioral phenotypes. (2002). The findings thus suggest that tailoring instruction to suit an individual's natural learning tendencies – which depend on their genes – can enhance learning. Mets and Brainard have therefore taken a new approach by testing the idea in a songbird called the Bengalese finch. Synthetic shRNAs as potent RNAi triggers. 1) Given that authors recently shown that song tempo is heritable, and that other previous work showed that rhythm mismatch can decrease imitation (a 'calibration effect'), the current manuscript must more clearly articulate the novelty of the results. This was true even though none of the birds had ever heard their father sing. Highly efficient small interfering RNA delivery to primary mammalian neurons induces micro-RNA-like effects before mRNA degradation. (2005). However, given that authors have recently shown that song tempo is heritable, and that other previous studies showed that rhythm mismatch can decrease imitation (a 'calibration effect'), I found it difficult to evaluate the novelty of the results. Identification and characterization of optimal gene expression markers for detection of breast cancer metastasis. Avian brains and a new understanding of vertebrate evolution. For each bird, tempo was then quantified as the number of syllables present in a song bout divided by the duration of the song bout, averaged across at least 60 bouts of singing. Reciprocal alternations in pre- and postsynaptic inhibitory markers at chandelier cell inputs to pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia. The observation that individual Bengalese finches are biased to learn better from some songs than from others is broadly consistent with the idea that innate factors might constrain ‘drift’ away from species-typical song models. Given that the one-tailed test gave p<0.02, and that multiple comparisons were not accounted for, the correct p-value should be 0.08. Here, we take advantage of the tractable nature of vocal learning in songbirds (Lonchura striata domestica) to test the idea that matching instruction to individual genetic predispositions can enhance learning. This study tested for heritable predispositions in song learning outcomes in Bengalese finches. Evidence for inhibition mediated by coassembly of GABAA and GABAC receptor subunits in native central neurons. However, in my view, needed data are lacking to justify the strong claims made about genetics in driving behavioral outcomes. Across eight nests, birds that were home-reared learned significantly better than birds that were cross-fostered (n = 8 parental pairs, 52 cross-fostered birds, 45 home-reared birds; Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p<0.005).