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[225] Its use in solder for electronics is also being phased out by some countries to reduce the amount of environmentally hazardous waste. These compounds are relatively stable: tetraethyllead only starts to decompose if heated[88] or if exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. Most lead ores contain a low percentage of lead (rich ores have a typical content of 3–8%) which must be concentrated for extraction. Diamond cubic structures with lattice parameters around the lattice parameter of silicon exists both in thin lead and tin films, and in massive lead and tin, freshly solidified in vacuum of ~5 x 10. Many metals are superior to lead in some of these aspects but are generally less common and more difficult to extract from parent ores. [152][153] The largest production of lead occurred in South and East Asia, especially China and India, where lead mining grew rapidly. [240] A 2009 Canadian–American study concluded that even at levels that are considered to pose little to no risk, lead may cause "adverse mental health outcomes". Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. The rate of skin absorption is lower for inorganic lead. [259], Poisoning typically results from ingestion of food or water contaminated with lead, and less commonly after accidental ingestion of contaminated soil, dust, or lead-based paint. [104], Lead is classified as a chalcophile under the Goldschmidt classification, meaning it is generally found combined with sulfur. When freshly cut, lead is silvery with a hint of blue; it tarnishes to a dull gray color when exposed to air. The lead in batteries undergoes no direct contact with humans, so there are fewer toxicity concerns. [211] In the past it was often used to balance the wheels of cars; for environmental reasons this use is being phased out in favor of other materials. It’s no surprise that quite a few of the words on Collins Word of the Year 2020 shortlist have one big thing in common: the pandemic. It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. [113], There is no consensus on the origin of the Proto-Germanic *lauda-. [97] A stable thallium-203 nucleus can capture a neutron and become thallium-204; this undergoes beta decay to give stable lead-204; on capturing another neutron, it becomes lead-205, which has a half-life of around 15 million years. 1. Zinc, which is immiscible in lead, dissolves the silver and gold. So profitieren Sie davon, dass wir die Seiten so kundenfreundlich wie möglich gestalten und Ihr Erlebnis beim Websurfen optimieren. The Balearic slingers, used as mercenaries in Carthaginian and Roman armies, were famous for their shooting distance and accuracy. [268], Treatment for lead poisoning normally involves the administration of dimercaprol and succimer. [s] People who work in battery production plants may be exposed to lead dust and inhale it. All Years Modified entries © 2019 [202], Lead has been used for bullets since their invention in the Middle Ages. Gaseous by-product of the coking process, containing. The two main modes of capture are the s- and r-processes. Amaze your friends with your new-found knowledge! [172] Most European countries banned lead paint—commonly used because of its opacity and water resistance[173]—for interiors by 1930. In the second half of the 18th century, Britain, and later continental Europe and the United States, experienced the Industrial Revolution. [193][194] De-silvered lead is freed of bismuth by the Betterton–Kroll process, treating it with metallic calcium and magnesium. Samstag: 9.00 bis 14.00 Uhr, PB Versicherungen [117], Lead tablets were commonly used as a material for letters. [207], Lead has many uses in the construction industry; lead sheets are used as architectural metals in roofing material, cladding, flashing, gutters and gutter joints, and on roof parapets. 3. ", "Reassessment of the Microcytic Anemia of Lead Poisoning", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, "Transmetalation reactions producing organocopper compounds", "Encyclopedia Judaica: Ossuaries and Sarcophagi", "V.— The meanings and synonyms of plumbago", "Solid State Ionics: from Michael Faraday to green energy—the European dimension", Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, Metal stocks in Society – Scientific Synthesis, "Lead Poisoning in a Historical Perspective", 10.1002/1097-0274(200009)38:3<244::AID-AJIM3>3.0.CO;2-F, "A History of Cosmetics from Ancient Times", "Greenland ice evidence of hemispheric lead pollution two millennia ago by Greek and Roman civilizations", "Livechart - Table of Nuclides - Nuclear structure and decay data", New Study Finds Lead Levels in a Majority of Paints Exceed Chinese Regulation and Should Not be on Store Shelves, Timbal dalam Cat Enamel Rumah Tangga di Indonesia, "Chemical bonding of main-group elements", "Stable Radicals of the Heavy p-Block Elements".

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