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Am J Nurs 104:60–70, Ratti E, Trist D (2001) Continuing evolution of the drug discovery process. SNPs occur every 100–300 bases along the three-billion-base human genome; therefore, millions of SNPs must be identified and analyzed to determine their involvement (if any) in drug response (Laing et al. If drugs are not commercialized in competition with already existing equivalents, their commercialization costs are expected to fall significantly (Meyers and Baker 2001; Simoens 2011; Liang and Mackey 2011). Various drugs are reported to show adverse drug reactions (ADR), which often result in hospitalizations and in some cases fatalities (Lazarou et al. If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. Pharmaceutical companies literally burn millions of dollar per drug to bring it to the market. Learn how your comment data is processed. Pharmacogenomics 11:501–505, Tsaioun K, Bottlaender M, Mabondzo A, Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation (2009) ADDME–avoiding drug development mistakes early: central nervous system drug discovery perspective. www.fdareview.org, Kuhn M, Szklarczyk D, Franceschini A, Campillos M, von Mering C, Jensen LJ, Beyer A, Bork P (2010) STITCH 2: an interaction network database for small molecules and proteins. These costs include commercialization costs (Gilbert et al. The high cost of various phase of clinical trials acts as limiting factors for number of drugs, which can be developed by pharmaceutical companies, and hence selecting the compounds with the best chances for approval is critical (Klein and Tabarrok 2003; Wierenga and Eaton 2004; Tamimi and Ellis 2009). Many of them are also animated. Commercialization costs for new drug to be about $250 million per approved drugs (Gilbert et al. It provides insight into the growth of value players, as well as looking at new entrants to the market and their growth prospects. Adams CP, Brantner VV (2010) Spending on new drug development. Nephron Clin Pract 113:c125–c131, Thorisson GA, Smith AV, Krishnan L, Stein LD (2005) The international HapMap project web site. Mining and warehousing of the human genome sequence using bioinformatics has helped to define and classify the nucleotide compositions of those genes, which are responsible for the coding of target proteins, in addition to identifying new targets that offer more potential for new drugs (Chen and Chen 2008; Katara et al. JAMA 279:1200–1205, Liang BA, Mackey T (2011) Direct-to-consumer advertising with interactive internet media: global regulation and public health issues. One of the major thrusts of current bioinformatics approaches is the prediction and identification of biologically active candidates (Whittaker 2003), and mining and storage of related information (Table 1). Alliance Pharmaceutical Company. http://www.allp.com/drug_dev.htm, Wishart DS, Knox C, Guo AC, Cheng D, Shrivastava S, Tzur D, Gautam B, Hassanali M (2008) DrugBank: a knowledgebase for drugs, drug actions and drug targets. presentations for free. 1998; Rawlins 2004). Curr Top Med Chem [Epub ahead of print], Tamimi NA, Ellis P (2009) Drug development: from concept to marketing! After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. BMC Neurol 12:9, Vanakker OM, De Paepe A (2013) Pharmacogenomics in children: advantages and challenges of next generation sequencing applications. 2010). Curr Drug Metab 9:207–212, Haga SB, Burke W (2011) Practical ethics: establishing a pathway to benefit for complex pharmacogenomic tests. Two branches which made positive impact on drug designing process and reduce the overall cost and risk are Bioinformatics and Pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics J 9:23–33, Ortega SS, Cara LC, Salvador MK (2012) In silico pharmacology for a multidisciplinary drug discovery process. … There is also a benefit to society as the use of expensive drugs is avoided in patients whose disorders would not have been cured by these drugs (Gomase et al. Protoplasma 248:799–804, Klein DB, Tabarrok A (2003) The drug discovery, development and approval process. Maharashtra State Pharmacy Council. 2012). - Bioinformatics Bioscau@21cn.com yahoo.com.cn ... - Bioinformatics for Biologists * * Administrative stuff: Dr. Dan Graur dgraur@uh.edu Official TA: Nicholas Price Unofficial TAs: Yichen Zheng & Wenfu Li Science ... - Algorithmic Bioinformatics Bioinformatics cycle Applied bioinformatics Use bioinformatics tools Access databases and tools over the web Programming for bioinformatics ... - Title: PowerPoint Presentation - Bioinformatics how to predict protein structure using comparative modeling Author: Adam Godzik Last modified by, - Canadian Bioinformatics Workshops www.bioinformatics.ca *. 2012). Clin Pharmacol Ther 89:924–927, Becquemont L (2009) Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions: practical applications and perspectives. Nowadays, therefore, Pharmaceutical companies invest heavily in all those approaches that show potential to accelerate any phase of the drug development process (Whittaker 2003). The main interest of pharmacogenomics is to identify patients for whom drug efficacy can be predicted, and to reduce risk of adverse drugs effects (Nelson et al. 1998; Rawlins 2004; Prows and Prows 2004). Int J Pediatr 2013:136524, Whittaker P (2003) What is the relevance of bioinformatics to pharmacology? - Canadian Bioinformatics Workshops www.bioinformatics.ca. Bioinformatics efforts did not make any impeccable changes in the drug discovery and development process.

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