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0.00 0.00 0.00 rg #8n]';U3),>3#+]:+UD8/oPG3W>l6*gE(%?aJ3k]bpXb0S!0g(r1IKULc'+^=K_tTEsH6kjP3jZ 0.0000 Tc )Tj Christine DiStefano, PhD, is an AssociateProfessor of Educational Measurement in theCollege of Education at the University of SouthCarolina. 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg .RFSQ%066:C):2<79s#frK:kRdK/uMlDaU"UZORkDKi8K19f#BLAFY`ihr\bn$O*h4ePT.YA8%0 Yl_&,$NJ5R'5_^KO1uTP116_[*FTVaj=GG=GmV;a>=f#H_Ch$hinXRl2]U@!2d2'$S3m`2o 0.0000 Tc 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg )Tj 20.2800 0.0000 TD (. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] prks*m.F^lbqc).`0`)!PaRqN?msEaA[2@;=Cl1>aea)\m;'[0U*9/pm(dkB!%F=JL4uGlLpZ&9 Eac)Tj %P/OG1!UTucLV:T3:&NQG^k;Y$Mu4-0BV)Q`.J*shD.LgC 54.6000 0.0000 TD endobj (13. /FontName /TimesNewRomanPSMT 83.7600 0.0000 TD 1.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.00000 0.0000 0.0000 cm (p minimiz)Tj 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg Let us do your homework! (Some additional guidelines to consider when writing items are described below:)Tj (4. -0.0600 Tw 9s--`fR4fNM9N-uQ2Hi3aVLMNabD!ah!U]jJoobNKnrI36TU,'skPUap]=i!.H=A\UDF The two form of the rest are then correlated to yield a coefficient of equivalence. endobj (gth of)Tj 0.0600 Tc /F6 12.0000 Tf /Font << /F6 6 0 R /F11 11 0 R >> 92.5200 0.0000 TD stream 0.0000 -14.1000 TD /F11 12.0000 Tf F`8HX0fL4.FWbXGF:Dc'E$-ki3$9kt+E2IF%:jU#+>GT2+>7p]E-673A9Di60etF*06eUYF`\(' (key or resemble the key ve)Tj 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg 23.5200 0.0000 TD *Fuech6]]/8>E ATMs-Df0*(GA\OBF`\('F`8HX3AM^16"b4HG%De8F`\('F`8HX3AVd26"+8GFCcS6F`\('F`8HX !%q-e65@l-r^g3(^/e/dYVa\ 32.8800 0.0000 TD @:sUhE+gA5F`\('F`8HX3&;[1E+O'(De*?hDKKH1ARlp&F`\('F`8HX3&Da2@qB1b 500 500 500 200 500 333 760 276 500 564 333 760 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 164.6400 0.0000 TD /FontBBox [-568 -307 2028 1007] jHMFmOO==6f]BK-VO2b^)LX&.2gS@:p^J[a&FKA9*5NcdbZ1QPEKJ_P,25;(!,=njhs*"WaC9o& E$-nk0H`#KA8,UqATMR,+E2IF%:jU#+>P],+>6l+@s)m)+E2IF%:jU#+>P]-+>6]-DfT_P]2+>7/FBl%P]3+>7/6 (by giv)Tj (personal like or dislike for a particular item format. 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg (ome confused or a)Tj *Fuech6]]/8>E -368.1600 -14.1000 TD 21.2400 0.0000 TD /Subtype /Type1 /F6 12.0000 Tf @T.Q;Fi9ig82:e"ng/=B]&bfA=8*l.Bq.Zr#+M)?2Pp (format. (c.)Tj However there are some essential prerequisites which must be met if the item writer wants to write good and appropriate items. E8kdEFEPB7R"?k\0lV`_ks&h2!XCjL!X+:$k*hiDole19P%l6?s+BCTnf+,@G+oi6[hI'm^$6cV##eM-Q G-J8=Ygo>2j-BUb23m5KK<0P\D? -305.5200 -14.1600 TD (s the selection of)Tj The use of multiple-choice questions, for)Tj 0.0000 Tw F(HJ5F`\('F`8HX1GL"*Ao)C+Bl5&4F`\('F`8HX1GU(+EHQ2AARo7d@UX=h+E2IF%:jU#+>GZ. >> endobj Principles of test construction1. S8/]`mKi)?e?FY+q^A13MT:,tk^tTDnWbB_c/FD96U-@j0ZLcp,.MD6X=(a!<>]Y/e1>Bo9@dGW 18.0000 0.0000 TD 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg These variables are impossible to identified, even if we identify some they cannot be measured because most of them are so small. -308.2800 -30.7200 TD (l sequ)Tj (Bean, 1953:15). (Essay items must be graded anony)Tj (del)Tj 0H`&T+ED%%A8c@%Gp$X/AdpC^DI[TqBl7Q+1,Us4@/G[kD0 The item writer must also cultivate a rich source of ideas for items. 0.0000 Tc :cl2nBA@99.^N,fE^_5B(:)9dDPc=O,;)!f,Oap2V[VLmfNl (University of Wisconsin-Madison)Tj -0.0600 Tw /Font << /F11 11 0 R >> Q[sAQs!oA;%)]/tRad4?qt"3k8er0ZQ_;Sa7-FJ,]*dCG#OHnS>#_Bhc8ejrNH)f2P*7tUhYIbN7N'!ZRnHb9U3aJhU#D&%f4,3u@j_^>[:kDk The deductive method begins by developing a theory for the construct of interest. 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The inductive method begins by constructing a wide variety of items with little or no relation to an established theory or previous measure. /Parent 2 0 R V%I,iIga`l? 0,H;`-cm/Ye*56uctA@GKB*or;*UG[L8sbO Science Teacher and Lover of Essays. /F6 18.0000 Tf -117.4200 -14.1600 TD (construction purp)Tj 80.4000 0.0000 TD Psychological testing is the branch of psychology in which we use standardized tests, construct them in order to understand the individual differences. jT\rAFMnWslC$4bc#&*23E8ZFJYA00nUNhrb^7tO@e^SeQtb=#@`>D"igDc-aHRqFQAhb"mqNt] 20 0 obj 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg >[pn^7[/u7qFN'p$nN4kCC$L#`q-dH!8G%R,;OUn5b#a';.JFpqY_$cnfSg3&lIal4YYcMs!TX? 0.0000 Tw 0JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG170JG17 0.0600 Tc 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg +>7;BCh[j0BlbD9F`\('F`8HX1Gg4-A79+`ATAo4F`\('F`8HX1Gp:.A79+`ATDF:Dc' 0.00 0.00 0.00 rg 0.6000 Tc (h objective,)Tj 11 0 obj 172.8000 0.0000 TD 21.8400 0.0000 TD _:UB1$^8Yg&!tq=5NrJ[6EEMV$#N>J=>,;m!l$sSEWlTqTVbo,$5X415XUUM+]]g7g8d`1M+B4e (ious performanc)Tj IauHk#G=c*P7J! /F6 18.0000 Tf -0.0600 Tw Face validity is determined by a review of the items and not through the use of statistical analysis. 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