While harsh, Hammurabi’s law included the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. A bride’s father paid a dowry to the young couple. Historically, the Assyrians were a Semitic people living in northern Mesopotamia who spoke Akkadian until the easier Aramaic language came along. Each temple had a household staff that provided culinary and housekeeping services for the priesthood. The first true soap, made of boiled goat fat water and ash with a lot of potassium carbonate, was developed by the Phoenicians around 600 B.C. Punishments for breaking the law included dismemberment, disfigurement and death. Sumer, however, would rise again during the Sumerian Renaissance of 2047-1750 B.C. Ziggurats were part of a temple complex, a set of buildings devoted to the care of the gods and to all the businesses of the temple. Girls stayed home and learned the household tasks they would perform when they grew up and married. They were characterised by tall qasab reeds but included a number of freshwater lakes, of which the largest were the Haur az-Zikri and Umm al-Binni (literally "mother of binni", the latter being a species of barbel). The later, evening meal might be a spicy vegetable stew, perhaps flavored with onions and fish or meat along with barley bread and beer. Prostitution, however, was not regarded as vile or degrading at that time. They were covered by a layer of baked bricked which was laid flat across the side walls of the drain. The earliest known pipe discovered in … People entered the underworld from their graves. Young people who wanted to be a priest or priestess had to be perfect in body and come from a good family. The Mesopotamian Empire of Iraq also had storm water drainage systems. From dawn to dusk, men worked in the fields or tended the livestock and women worked in the homes, raising children, making baskets and pottery, weaving cloth and cooking. Although some damage did occur during the war, Ur’s great ziggurat remains to this day in Nasiriyah, Iraq. The wealth generated by this trade gave Ashur the strength and security necessary for eventual empire-building. They have long hair, wear turbans on their heads, and anoint their whole body with perfumes. The Hittites battled with the Assyrians, but the Assyrian king Ashur-Uballit stamped out any remaining Mitanni or Hittite control over northern Mesopotamia. Mari was excavated in 1933, providing clay tablets that are half the correspondence. The Sumerians made mirrors with ivory, wood and gold handles. They had wooden furniture. Rulers took a portion of every crop as taxes. Mesopotamian commoners’ houses were one or two stories, made of mud bricks with rooms around an open courtyard. onwards, scholars date the founding of the city to 1900 B.C. His mother was the goddess Ninsun and his father the priest-king Lugalbanda, making Gilgamesh semi-divine. Sargon’s reign (2334 to 2279 B.C.) He supervised scores of other priests in performing sacred duties. Sumerians are believed to have created the first deodorant about 3500 B.C. It is here that we see the second interesting use of the oil. Also, opening and closing stones had inspection traps and small holes at regular intervals. The construction of a Hittite torch is unclear. Craft knowledge was closely guarded and passed down from fathers to sons. Some speculate that he was killed by his brother, Manishtusu, who followed him on the throne. The Assyrians used ergot in ancient times as a treatment for controlling bleeding caused from childbirth. A scribe in the city of Lagash wrote the document around 2100 B.C. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Royal hunts depicted in these images were ceremonial affairs in which w lion was released from a cage and surrounded by soldiers who forced it to fight with the king and no doubt stepped in if it looked as if the lion was going to get the upper hand. Small settling pools and traps were built into the system of drainage to allow sediment and other material to collect while the water and smaller particles flowed away. Hammurabi allied with Babylon’s rival city Larsa to defeat the Elamites, which they did. When Hammurabi took the throne, that began to change, although slowly at first. mirrors were fashioned from polished metal in Mesopotamia. The invention of writing in the mid-4th millennium B.C. Hunting was perhaps the most popular recreational activity among the upper classes and royalty. /=/. Massive siege engines became prized Assyrian armaments. Poorer Mesopotamians went to bed at dark so they didn’t have the expense of lighting candles or oil lamps. Both of these sacred sexual practices existed for thousands of years in Mesopotamia. Claude Hermann and Walter Johns wrote in the Encyclopedia Britannica:“Houses were let usually for the year, but also for longer terms, rent being paid in advance, half-yearly. If a man took out another man’s eye in a fight, he then lost his own eye. Priestesses were required to be celibate. The Mesopotamian civilization flourished in the Euphrates River area (in modern-day Iraq, Iran, and Syria) from 4000-2500 BCE. The hereditary noble class were the kings, land-owning families and priests and priestesses and their families. Unbelievable! The use of "butter" or "ghee" for this purpose seems strange. An Assyrian king named Shamshi-Adad I (1813 to 1791 B.C.) Scroll down to see more articles about the history of Mesopotamia. The elaborate drainage system of the … Based on images in reliefs, Babylonian and Assyrian men wore fringed robes, heavy make up and jewelry Gods. Just imagine there were no technology, no machines and no advance tools exists at that time. First, they had to cross a river via a ferry. Families could also sell their daughters into prostitution or slavery. The sophisticated drainage system of the Indus valley people explains that they had developed a good sense of health and sanitation. While drought and famine devastated the lands, the Gutian Invasion ensured the collapse of the Akkadian empire in 2193 B.C. As the gods were the most important beings to the early Mesopotamians, priests, who mediated with the gods and divined their wills, became the most important people in the village. In early Mesopotamia, priests were the initial rulers as all authority came from the god. The oldest epic tale in the world was written 1500 years before Homer wrote the Illiad. It took 12 years to learn the cuneiform marks and the general knowledge of scribes. Along with the city of Nimrod, this was the core of the fledging Assyrian empire. The Hittites had learned to forge iron in the 18th century B.C. Camels can carry far more weight than donkeys and didn’t need as much watering. and developed into cities between 3500 and 2500 B.C. Several texts whose composition goes back to the Old Hittite period mention this: to the hungry give bread, to the thirsty water, to the naked clothes, to the dried out/desiccated. King Nebuchadnezzar II, his son, began renovating and building on a grand scale in Babylon until it covered 2,200 acres with a population perhaps reaching 200,000. The word ziggurat means raised area. Babylon reached its first height with the reign of the great King Hammurabi, an Amorite prince, the sixth of his dynasty. The temple complex was one of the economic centers of the city. Enlil (supreme god & god of air) Ishtar (goddess of fertility & life.  Part of the Hammar Marsh was also drained in 1985 during efforts to prepare the area for oil exploration. Wealthier homes had windows for lighting as well as sesame oil lamps.