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The dissolution of this compound in water is quite endothermic, making it an ideal choice of material in instant cold packs. [6] Accidental ammonium nitrate explosions have killed thousands of people since the early 20th century. Numerous safety guidelines are available for storing and handling ammonium nitrate. [36] [26], Ammonium nitrate has a critical relative humidity of 59.4%, above which it will absorb moisture from the atmosphere. NH4NO3 can be prepared from the acid-base reaction between nitric acid and ammonia, described by the following chemical equation: This reaction is highly exothermic and proceeds violently. Ces conditions biogéochimiques sont propices à l'anoxie du substrat, et à une nouvelle production de nitrites et d'ammonium dans le substrat même[34]. Il ne doit pas être chauffé dans un espace confiné. Il peut être vendu en solution à 50 % et 95 % en masse. Examples include the Oppau explosion of 1921 (one of the largest artificial non-nuclear explosions), the Texas City disaster of 1947, the 2015 Tianjin explosions in China, and the 2020 Beirut explosion.[37]. À dose plus importante, les symptômes d'une chlorose apparaissent et peuvent conduire à la mort de la plante[31]. Ammonium nitrate's advantage over urea is that it is more stable and does not rapidly lose nitrogen to the atmosphere. Another important application of ammonium nitrate is through the solution of ammonium nitrate with nitric acid. At temperatures below around 300 °C, the decomposition mainly produces nitrous oxide and water: At higher temperatures, the following reaction predominates.[11]. Selon une enquête menée par Le Canard enchaîné en août 2020, le ministère de la Transition écologique estime qu'un accident similaire à celui qui s'est produit à Beyrouth début août 2020 est très peu probable en France car la France a adopté une réglementation parmi les plus strictes d'Europe[18]. Large stockpiles of the material can also be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, a situation which can easily escalate to detonation. Le nitrate d'ammonium est notamment directement impliqué dans les explosions : Les engrais azotés sont de puissantes sources de dissémination de molécules azotées qui, souvent alliées aux pollutions primaires des combustions de l'industrie ou du trafic routier, reforment via l'étape gazeuse des particules secondaires polluantes correspondant aux principaux engrais, sulfate d'ammonium et nitrate d'ammonium. Ammonium Nitrate Formula. Along with alkali metal nitrates, Ammonia and water are also released. This salt readily dissolves in water forming HNO, Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, Physical Properties of Alkanes and Their Variations, NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3, NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4, NCERT Solutions for Class 11 chemistry chapter 2 – Structure of Atom, NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Maths Chapter 6 The Triangle and its Properties, NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure In Hindi, Cell Structure and Functions NCERT Solutions - Class 8 Science, NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom In Hindi, NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties In Hindi, Surface Chemistry NCERT Solutions - Class 12 Chemistry, NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 11, Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes for Chapter 3 - Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, Class 11 Chemistry Revision Notes for Chapter 4 - Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure, CBSE Class 7 Maths Chapter 6 - Triangle and Its Properties Formulas, Class 11 Chemistry Notes for Chapter 2 - Structure of Atom, CBSE Class 11 Physics Thermal Properties of Matter Formulas, CBSE Class 11 Physics Mechanical Properties of Solids Formulas, CBSE Class 11 Physics Mechanical Properties of Fluids Formulas, Vedantu Il correspond au corps minéral anhydre naturel, de maille orthorhombique, nommé par les minéralogistes « nitrammite »[8]. Ammonium nitrate is a solid crystalline substance. It is found as gwihabaite which is called the Ammonium analogue of saltpetre. Cinq formes allotropiques ont été observées[9] : Cette poudre solide compacte et relativement instable se décompose à haute température en libérant de la chaleur et en formant des produits gazeux, d'où le caractère explosif de cette décomposition. [27][28], Ammonium nitrate begins decomposition after melting, releasing NO x , HNO3, NH3 and H2O. Ammonia produced by the Haber process can be oxidized to nitric acid by the Ostwald process. Explosions are not uncommon: relatively minor incidents occur most years, and several large and devastating explosions have also occurred. Earlier, Ammonium nitrate used to be mined as a mineral from these regions. Ammonium nitrate-based explosives were used in the Sterling Hall bombing in Madison, Wisconsin, 1970, the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, the 2011 Delhi bombings, the 2011 bombing in Oslo, and the 2013 Hyderabad blasts. L’azote contenu dans les fourrages importés ne retourne pas sur les territoires où ils ont été produits. Ammonium nitrate can also be made via metathesis reactions: As ammonium nitrate is a salt, both the cation, NH4+, and the anion, NO3−, may take part in chemical reactions. The following occur under atmospheric pressure. Le nitrate d'ammonium est un corps chimique, composé ionique du cation ammonium et de l'anion nitrate de formule NH4NO3. Le nitrate d’ammonium n’étant pas complètement absorbé par les plantes mais soluble dans l’eau, il ruisselle, ce qui cause l’eutrophisation de milieux naturels sensibles. Les teneurs en ammoniaque sont en revanche trop faibles pour influencer la survie ». Many ammonium nitrate disasters, with loss of lives, have occurred. Ammonia is used in its anhydrous form (a gas) and the nitric acid is concentrated. In an endothermic reaction, the ammonium nitrate dissolves in water, a chemical reaction that absorbs heat rather than releases it. Or they may be sold together as a mixture. It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. However, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation. In this process, one molecule of calcium nitrate reacts with two molecules of Ammonia, one molecule of carbon dioxide and one molecule of water to produce calcium carbonate and Ammonium nitrate. Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017. Dissolving ammonium nitrate in water results in an endothermic reaction. A solution of ammonium nitrate with nitric acid called Cavea-b showed promise for use in spacecraft as a more energetic alternative to the common monopropellant hydrazine. NH4NO3 is also one of the key components of ANFO, one of the most popular choices of industrial explosives. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 8 novembre 2020 à 20:29. The industrial production of ammonium nitrate entails the acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid:[10]. . Your email address will not be published. It also consists of two ions where one is a cation ammonium (NH4+) ion and the other is an anion which is nitrate (NO3–) ion. This salt is acidic in nature since it is derived from a weak base (NH3) and a strong acid (HNO3).

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